Conventions in footnoting for essays, papers and books.

©Werner Hammerstingl, 1998

USE OF IBID.: When references to the same work follow each other without any intervening references even though they are separated by several pages, the abbreviation ibid. (for the Latin ibidem, "in the same place") is used to repeat the preceding reference. Any changes in volume and/or page numbers must be indicated following ibid. However, if the reference is to the same volume and page number(s) as the preceding references then nothing follows ibid. Ibid. may not be used to repeat part of a preceding reference.

USE OF OP. CIT.: Reference to a work which has already been cited in full form but not in the reference immediately preceding should include the author,s last name (but not his/her first name or initials unless two authors by the same last name have already been mentioned in the paper), and the abbreviation op.cit. from the Latin opere citato ("in the work cited"). In most entries' op. cit. is followed by the page designation

USE OF LOC. CIT.: Loc. cit. (for the Latin loco citato' "in the place cited',) is used in lieu of ibid. when the reference is not only to the work immediately preceding but also refers to the same page. Loc. cit. is also used in lieu of op. cit. when reference is made to a work previously cited and to the same page in that work. Hence, loc. cit. is never followed by volume and/or page numbers. When it takes the place of ibid., loc. cit. is capitalized.