Dada and Surrealism


©Werner Hammerstingl 1998

Year Event
1910 Marcel Duchamp and Franzis Picabia meet and become friends
1911 Duchamp and Picabia attend Raymond Roussel's "Impressions d'Afrique", a monument to absurd humour.It features a painting machine, activated by Rays of sunlight which on it's own accord, paints a masterpiece
1913 Duchamp renounces painting makes first readymade .
1914-18 WW1
1915 Picabia and Duchamp arrive in New York. Picabia executes series of machine drawings; Duchamp begins the Large Glass and meets Man Ray.
1916 Cabaret Voltaire opens in Zurich on 5 February, and in April its participants adopt the name 'Dada'. Richard Huelsenbeck (young refugee poet) and Hugo Ball are credited with this.
1917 Publication of first issues of Dada in Zurich. Picabia publishes nos. 1-4 of 391 in Barcelona. Duchamp sends Fountain to the Independents in New York; Man Ray and Duchamp edit The Blind Man and Rongwrong. Premiere of Apollinaire's 'Surrealist drama' Les Mamelles de Tire'sias in Paris. Galerie Dada in Zurich.
1918 Breton, Eluard, Soupault, Aragon see Dada. Tzara's Manifeste Dada 1918 published in Dada, 3. Club Dada in Berlin; Hausmann and others start using photomontage.
1919 Litterature, edited by Breton, Aragon, Soupault, appears in Paris, publishes Lautreamont, and serializes Les Champs magne'tiques. Jacques Vache commits suicide. Ernst and Baargeld found 'Dada conspiracy of the Rhineland' in Cologne. Schwitters makes first Merz works.
1920 Tzara arrives in Paris. Dada tour in Germany by Huelsenbeck, Hausmann and Baader. In Berlin Dada Almanach; 'Dada Fair'. Dada exhibition in Cologne.
1921 Publication of New York Dada, edited by Duchamp and Man Ray. Exhibition of Ernst in Paris; Dada stages 'trial of Barres', loses Picabia's support.
1922 André Breton is using the term "Surrealist"-originally coined by Apollinaire after Nietzsche's Sur homme (superman) and Alfred Jarry's "Surmale" used to describe his play "les mamelles de Tiresisas-to mean a certain psychic automatism which corresponds quite well to a state of dream.
1923 Duchamp leaves Large Glass. Masson makes first automatic drawings, Miro paints Tilled Field.
1924 Breton publishes first Manifeste du Surrealisme.
1925 'Exposition, La Peinture Surrealiste' at Galerie Pierre.
1926 Galerie Surrealiste opens with Man Ray exhibition. Arp settles in Paris. Publication of Ernst's frottages Histoire naturelle.
1927 Masson makes first sand paintings.
1928 Breton publishes Nadja and Le Surrealisme et la peinture. Dali makes Un Chien andalou with Bunuel.
1929 Breton publishes Second Manifeste du Surrealisme. purging dissidents and calling for political action.
1930 Bunuel and Dali make L'Age D'Or.
1932 Breton publishes Les Vases communicants. Group exhibition of Surrealists at Julien Levy Gallery in New York. 1933 Victor Brauner joins Surrealists.
1934 Dali visits America. Dominguez joins Surrealists.
1936 Exhibition 'Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism' at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. First exhibition of Surrealist objects in Paris. Exhibition in London. Dali censured for support of Fascism.
1937 Breton opens Galerie Gradiva. Matta joins Surrealists.
1938 Breton meets Trotsky, and they write manifesto Pour un art revolutionnaire independant. Eluard and Ernst break with Surrealism. Wifredo Lam and Hans Bellmer meet the Surrealists.
1940 Many Surrealists, including Breton, Masson, Lam and Ernst, meet in Marseilles en route for New York.
1942 'First Papers of Surrealism' exhibition in New York.
1944 Breton meets Gorky.
1947 'Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme' at Galerie Maeght: last major group exhibition.
1966 Breton's death effectively ends movement.